This text forms part of the series outlining the principles of IEP planning and practice, with reference to pupils who have physical disabilities or medical conditions. The challenges and opportunities are considered in the following issues: how can teachers develop a truly educational perspective to deal with the demands of traditional medical approaches, disability rights and social responsibility?; what is the role of IEPs in ensuring true equality of opportunity and entitlement through an individualised programme?; what kind of targets are required and how can an educational balance be achieved in collaboration with health and other services?; and what systems in school are necessary to support effective IEPs in this area and what kind of training is needed to implement them?. The text provides ideas and activities to support institutional self-review and development which are produced in a photocopiable format.