Ages: Birth through 5 years
Testing Time: 45–60 Minutes
The PDMS-2 is an early childhood motor development program that provides (in one package) both in-depth assessment and training or remediation of gross and fine motor skills. The assessment is composed of six subtests that measure interrelated motor abilities that develop early in life. It is designed to assess the motor skills of children from birth through 5 years of age.
Reliability and validity have been determined empirically. The normative sample consisted of 2,003 persons residing in 46 states. The PDMS-2 can be used by occupational therapists, physical therapists, diagnosticians, early intervention specialists, adapted physical education teachers, psychologists, and others who are interested in examining the motor abilities of young children.
- Reflexes: This 8-item subtest measures a child’s ability to automatically react to environmental events. Because reflexes typically become integrated by the time a child is 12 months old, this subtest is only given to children birth through 11 months.
- Stationary: This 30-item subtest measures a child’s ability to sustain control of his or her body within its center of gravity and retain equilibrium.
- Locomotion: This 89-item subtest measures a child’s ability to move from one place to another. The actions measured include crawling, walking, running, hopping, and jumping forward.
- Object Manipulation: This 24-item subtest measures a child’s ability to manipulate balls. Examples of the actions measured include catching, throwing, and kicking. Because these skills are not apparent until a child has reached the age of 11 months, this subtest is only given to children ages 12 months and older.
- Grasping: This 26-item subtest measures a child’s ability to use his or her hands. It begins with the ability to hold an object with one hand and progresses up to actions involving the controlled use of the fingers of both hands.
- Visual-Motor Integration: This 72-item subtest measures a child’s ability to use his or her visual perceptual skills to perform complex eye-hand coordination tasks such as reaching and grasping for an object, building with blocks, and copying designs.
Fine Motor Quotient: This composite is a combination of the results of the subtests that measure the use of the small muscle systems: Grasping (all ages), Visual-Motor Integration (all ages).
Gross Motor Quotient: This composite is a combination of the results of the subtests that measure the use of the large muscle systems:
- Reflexes (birth-11 months only)
- Stationary (all ages)
- Locomotion (all ages)
- Object Manipulation (12 months and older)
Total Motor Quotient: This composite is formed by a combination of the results of the gross and fine motor subtests. Because of this, it is the best estimate of overall motor abilities.