Novaco Anger Scale and Provocation Inventory (NAS-PI)


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Initially developed in conjunction with the MacArthur Foundation Network on Mental Health and Law, the NAS-PI helps clinicians and researchers evaluate the role of anger in various psychological and physical conditions.


  • Brief and easy-to-administer
  • Assess anger in clinical, community and correctional settings
  • Assess anger reactivity, anger suppression and change in anger disposition
  • Can be administered as a whole, or the two parts can be used independently
  • The test has shown good test-retest reliability in nonclinical, clinical, and correctional samples


The NAS-PI is composed of two parts:

  • The Novaco Anger Scale (60 items), which tells you how an individual experiences anger
  • The Provocation Inventory (25 items), which identifies the kind of situations that induce anger in particular individuals.

The entire questionnaire can be completed in just 25 minutes by anyone with a reading age of 8 or above. (It can also be administered to clients who are mentally disordered or developmentally delayed, though items may have to be read to these individuals.)

The NAS-PI produces the following scores:

Novaco Anger Scale

  • Total – General inclination toward anger reactions, based on Cognitive, Arousal and Behaviour subscales.
  • Cognitive – Anger justification, rumination, hostile attitude and suspicion.
  • Arousal – Anger intensity, duration, somatic tension and irritability.
  • Behaviour – Impulsive reaction, verbal aggression, physical confrontation and indirect expression.
  • Anger Regulation – Ability to regulate anger-engendering thoughts, effect self-calming, and engage in constructive behaviour when provoked.

Provocation Inventory

  • A reflection of five content areas: disrespectful treatment, unfairness, frustration, annoying traits of others, and irritations
  • A validity index helps identify inconsistent responding, whether intentional or inadvertent